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Saturday, January 20, 2018

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743. Bell, M.A.. 1937. The effect of tillage method, crop sequence and date of seeding upon the yield and quality of dryland cereals and other crops in north-central MT.. MT Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #336.
T: Climatic data. Yield X crop, tillage, rotation. Green manure effects.

754. Bennett, W., D. Pittman, D. Tingey, D. McAllister, H. Peterson, and I. Sampson. 1954. Fifty years of dry land research (at the Nephi Field Station).. Utah Agr. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 371.
Summarizes the results of 50 yr of research at the Nephi Field Station in cental Utah. Discusses climate - spring rainfall crucial, fall emergence of wheat correlated to high yields. Ave. annual precipitation is 12.65 in. Tillage experiments - fall verus spring plowing did not affect yields, while late spring plowing lowered yields. Plowing to 8" depth increased yields by 8% compared to plowing at 5". Yields were higher with plowing and no further cultivation on fallow (weeds controlled) than with normal fallow tillage. Yields were poor with stubble mulch. Fertility: A pea green manure increased wheat yields both in the short and long term. Wheat yields were sometimes depressed by green manure, due to moisture shortage or N immobilization. Manure application increased wheat yields in all treatments, and was more beneficial in wet years. N fertilizer increased wheat yields and protein. Burning straw increased yields for 30 yr, then they began to decline. No response to P. Wheat-fallow gave the greatest yields and net returns, and wheat was the only crop distinctly benefitted by summerfallow. Alfalfa depressed the following wheat yields but improved soil fertility. Continuous wheat yielded less than 40% of wheat-fallow. Wheatgrasses showed potential for forage and seed. Spring wheats yielded 60% of winter wheat. Only 32% of rainfall was stored as soil moisture in summerfallow. Overall, yields were low (15-25 bu/ac) and treatment differences were small (1-3 bu). These results predate the semidwarf wheat varieties.

6684. Stephens, D.E.. 1944. Effect of tillage and cropping practices on runoff, erosion, and crop yields in the wheat growing areas of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon.. USDA-SCS. Conservation practices on wheat lands of the Pacific Northwest..
An excellent summary of the dryland experiment station research in WA, ID and OR. Describes research on stubble mulching, tillage implements, crop rotations, fallow, etc. The use of sweetclover or alfalfa-grass were encouraged. T: yield, runoff, soil loss by tillage, rotation, fertilizer.

7242. Veseth, R.. 1989. Reduced tillage for green manure legumes. STEEP Conservation Farming Update, Summer 1989, p. 3-5.
Three tillages were compared for incorporating Austrian winter pea or red clover green manure: moldboard plow plus shallow disk; shallow disk twice; no-till. At each N fertilizer rate, winter wheat yields were slightly higher with reduced tillage than with conventional tillage. A 60 lb/ac N rate substantially increased wheat yields after green manure, while the 120 N rate gave little or no yield increase. With no N fertilizer, the yield of winter wheat after both green manure crops compared favorably with yield of no-till winter wheat after a seed crop of spring peas. Legume N uptake by a following wheat crop was not affected by residue treatment, but recovery of legume N from the soil was about 10% lower with surface application than with soil incorporation. Also, wheat yields after chemically-killed green manures were consistently lower, and could not be fully recovered with fertilizer N. The mechanism of this suppression is not known.

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