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Sunday, June 17, 2018

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3098. Swanson, Guy. 1990. Annual production of spring wheat in Montana and the Columbia Basin. Bumper Times special edition, Jan. 31, 1990; p. 6; S. 4305 University Rd., Spokane, WA 99206.
Minimum till continuous spring wheat produced the highest net returns in a Montana study. The cost of Roundup reduced net returns in no-till, although no-till had the highest gross returns. John Rae, a WA farmer, has compared continuous no-till spring wheat with his normal winter wheat-fallow system. The continuous system has produced $350/ac more gross returns over five years in his 9" rainfall area.

9884. DeVault, G.. 1987. Whipping weeds, naturally.. The New Farm, May/June 1987, p. 36-37..
Instead of chemicals, a 3,000 acre dryland grain farm in Montana, uses crop rotation and timely cultivation to control weeds. After spring rains, they go over the fields with a chisel plow and rod weeder. At planting time, minimal weeding is done again with chisel-rod weeder. They summer fallow and alternate wheat and feed grains every third year and seed clover with spring-seeded grains. They have also reduced row spacing from 10 inches to 7 inches.

9952. Zahradnik, F.. 1983. He nets $60,000 a year without buying fertilizer.. The New Farm, March/Apr 1983, p.22-24..
Don Lambert of Cheney, Washington, has not had any synthetic fertilizers used on his 780-acre farm since his family began farming it three generations ago. Yet the farm consistently produces 65 to 70 bushels of winter and spring wheat per acre. His farm also has up to four times less rill erosion than neighboring fields. Lambert's independence from fertilizer and the reduced erosion are due the use of Austrian winter pea as a green manure every third year in his rotation. He plants this cover crop in April and lets it grow until late July or early August. If spring wheat is to follow, he plows just enough to leave a heavy surface residue to protect against winter erosion. A soil test following Austrian winter pea showed enough nitrogen for 84 bushels of wheat per acre. The cover crop builds organic matter content of the soil, helps control weeds, and researchers believe it somehow unlocks phosphorus from the soil, making it more available to following crops.

10756. Laird, E.. 1988. Grain legume mixtures and intercropping.. Proc. Crop diversification in sustainable agriculture systems, Univ. Sask., Saskatoon, p. 20-25.
The experience of several Saskatchewan farmers with intercropping is discussed. Some examples are durum wheat and flax, spring wheat and fall rye, rye and oats, rye and flax, peas and oats, mustard and peas, clover and oats. With wheat and rye, seeded together in the spring, the wheat is harvested the first year and the rye the next year. The rye discourages broadleaf weeds.

11165. Beus, C., D. Granatstein, and K. Painter. 1990. Prospects for sustainable agriculture in the Palouse: farmer experiences and viewpoints.. Agr. Res. Center Bull. XB1016, Washington State Univ., Pullman.
The results of interviews with 23 farmers in the Palouse region of Washington and Idaho are summarized in chapters on crop and soil management, economics and policy considerations, and social institutional factors. Farmers were chosen for their use of alternative rotations or cropping practices. The booklet illustrates some of the successful alternative practices currently used by commercial grain farmers and the economic and social motivations and consequences.

11204. Matheson, N., B. Rusmore, J.R. Sims, M. Spengler, and E.L. Michalson. 1991. Cereal-legume cropping systems: nine farm case studies in the dryland northern plains, Canadian prairies, and intermountain Northwest.. AERO, 44 N. Last Chance Gulch, Helena, MT 59601.
The farm case studies presented in this book include details of the crop rotations, tillage, fertilization, and pest control practices used by the farms. Farms were chosen for their innovative or alternative practices. Partial budgets for each crop on each farm are presented to provide a reference point for the economic performance of alternative dryland cropping systems. Comparisons with more conventional systems are not made.

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