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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Friday, July 20, 2018

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2756. Huggins, D.R., W.L. Pan, and J.L. Smith. 1989. Improving yield, percent protein, and N use efficiency of no-till hard red spring wheat through crop rotation and fall N fertilization.. Proceedings, 40th Far West Fertilizer Conference,.
In a field experiment near Pullman, WA, all fall and split fall-spring N applications significantly increased percent protein and N uptake efficiency as compared to all spring applications, while yields were unaffected. Protein increase was attributed to enhanced late season uptake, due to better positional availability of deep soil N. In another experiment, yield of hard red spring wheat was 10% greater when no-tilled into Austrian winter pea stubble (for seed) as compared to winter wheat stubble, while grain N and percent protein were not affected. The difference in yield was not eliminated by optimized N rates, indicating other rotation effects.

3098. Swanson, Guy. 1990. Annual production of spring wheat in Montana and the Columbia Basin. Bumper Times special edition, Jan. 31, 1990; p. 6; S. 4305 University Rd., Spokane, WA 99206.
Minimum till continuous spring wheat produced the highest net returns in a Montana study. The cost of Roundup reduced net returns in no-till, although no-till had the highest gross returns. John Rae, a WA farmer, has compared continuous no-till spring wheat with his normal winter wheat-fallow system. The continuous system has produced $350/ac more gross returns over five years in his 9" rainfall area.

8384. Beus, C., D. Dillman, and J. Carlson. 1990. Palouse agriculture: a survey on production practices, policies, and problems.. unpublished results, Dept. of Rural Sociology, Washington St. Univ., Pullman, WA 99164.
This random survey was done in the Palouse area of eastern WA and northern ID, with a random sample of about 260 farmers. Average farm size was 1392 acres. One-third of the respondents would like to change their current rotation, primarily to reduce disease problems, but consider government programs to be the biggest barrier. Desire to use no-till planting was evenly split. Half the respondents felt they were using most of the available erosion control practices. Large percentages (>60%) felt that contour tillage, surface roughness, no-till, good plant cover, and tilth were very important erosion control factors. Herbicide and fertilizer use trends over the past five years were normally distributed. Use of fungicides on wheat (other than seed treatment) was generally less than 20%. Half the farmers currently use soil testing, and of those, 90% tested for residual N to 4-5 ft. depth. Half the respondents felt they had cut back on pesticide and fertilizer use since their high point, while only 10-20% felt they would do so in the future. About 65% had heard of the LISA program, and 26% indicated opposition to it.

11037. Anon.. 1990. Annual production of spring wheat in Montana and the Columbia Basin.. Bumper Times Special Report, Spokane, WA. 1/31/90, p. 6..
In Montana, annual minimum till spring wheat produced the highest net returns compared to other summer fallow and winter wheat/spring wheat rotations. No-till continuous wheat produced the highest gross returns, but chemical costs reduced net returns. A farmer near Walla Walla, WA, had compared annual spring wheat to winter wheat-fallow. The annual system grossed $350/ac more than the crop-fallow system over five years. In the annual system, fields are swept after harvest and rodweeded in the fall to avoid the "green bridge." Fields are sprayed with Roundup and seeded to spring wheat as early as possible using a no-till drill. This often is in February. Average rainfall is 9".

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