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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, September 20, 2018

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3098. Swanson, Guy. 1990. Annual production of spring wheat in Montana and the Columbia Basin. Bumper Times special edition, Jan. 31, 1990; p. 6; S. 4305 University Rd., Spokane, WA 99206.
Minimum till continuous spring wheat produced the highest net returns in a Montana study. The cost of Roundup reduced net returns in no-till, although no-till had the highest gross returns. John Rae, a WA farmer, has compared continuous no-till spring wheat with his normal winter wheat-fallow system. The continuous system has produced $350/ac more gross returns over five years in his 9" rainfall area.

4921. Oien, David. no date. Black medic information packet.. Timeless Seeds, RR 3 Box 461, Conrad, MT 59425.
This packet is sent to growers who purchase seed. The seeding rate is recommended at 8-10 lb/ac, planted 1/2" deep into a firm seedbed. Field trials have indicated successful medic establishment with barley, oats, spring wheat, and flax as nurse crops, but a second year of medic growth is then necessary for adequate seed production. On-going experiments in Montana (Jim Sims, MSU) are examining several rotations: medic-cereal, sweetclover-cereal, fallow-ceral, and continuous cereal, with different nitrogen rates. Results indicate that the green manures used 1-3" more soil moisture than the other treatments. Wheat yields after medic and sweetclover (25 bu/ac) were significantly higher than all other treatments. An herbicide screening tested a number of alfalfa herbicides on black medic. Poast, Fusilade, Treflan, and Kerb did not injure medic, while paraquat, Pursuit, and 2,4-DB ester caused minor injury. Solicam provided the best overall weed control with little injury to the medic.

7786. Engel, R., L.E. Welty, R. Lockerman, J. Bergman, G. Kushnak, L. Prestbye, and J. Sims. 1987. Annual legumes and cereal grain rotations in Montana.. Montana AgResearch 4(3):1-4.
Montana researchers examined the performance of several grain legumes (dry pea, chickpea, lentil) and their effect on a subsequent barley crop. Dry pea production was the highest. A subsequent barley crop rsponded to added N fertilizer at three out of six sites. Barley yields following legumes were generally equal to or greater than yields following fallow. The annual legumes contributed to soil N and reduced the fertilizer N needed to reach maximum yield by 40-55 lb N/ac when compared to recrop barley. This translated into savings of $10-14/ac for fertilizer N.

8697. Kresge, D.O. and A.D. Halvorson. 1982. FLEXCROP: a dryland cropping system model.. USDA-ARS Agric. Prod. Res. Rept. 180.

9884. DeVault, G.. 1987. Whipping weeds, naturally.. The New Farm, May/June 1987, p. 36-37..
Instead of chemicals, a 3,000 acre dryland grain farm in Montana, uses crop rotation and timely cultivation to control weeds. After spring rains, they go over the fields with a chisel plow and rod weeder. At planting time, minimal weeding is done again with chisel-rod weeder. They summer fallow and alternate wheat and feed grains every third year and seed clover with spring-seeded grains. They have also reduced row spacing from 10 inches to 7 inches.

9962. Chilcott, E.C.. 1910. A study of cultivation methods and crop rotations for the Great Plains area.. USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 187. 78 pp..
This paper reports the results of a four-year experiment in crop rotation and cultivation methods conducted at eleven stations in the Great Plains area. Some of the questions asked of this experiment were how can the largest average yields of corn, spring wheat, oats and barley be obtained, do moisture conservation methods pay where continuous cropping to the same crop is practiced, and can green manuring be profitably substituted for summer tillage? The results found that a 3-year rotation of corn, wheat and oats gave the most profitable returns. Continous cropping with moisture conservation methods of fall plowing and fall, winter and spring tillage did not give results to warrant its recommendation. The most highly recommended practice was that of green manuring. For greatest benefits to the soil, it was recommended to plow in a green manure crop in early season, with little summer tillage, until wheat planting time.

11037. Anon.. 1990. Annual production of spring wheat in Montana and the Columbia Basin.. Bumper Times Special Report, Spokane, WA. 1/31/90, p. 6..
In Montana, annual minimum till spring wheat produced the highest net returns compared to other summer fallow and winter wheat/spring wheat rotations. No-till continuous wheat produced the highest gross returns, but chemical costs reduced net returns. A farmer near Walla Walla, WA, had compared annual spring wheat to winter wheat-fallow. The annual system grossed $350/ac more than the crop-fallow system over five years. In the annual system, fields are swept after harvest and rodweeded in the fall to avoid the "green bridge." Fields are sprayed with Roundup and seeded to spring wheat as early as possible using a no-till drill. This often is in February. Average rainfall is 9".

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