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Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production

Thursday, January 18, 2018

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Search results on 01/18/18

2784. Hulbert, H.W.. 1927. Sweetclover.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #147.
Biennial white is best forage, biennial yellow is too short; can handle alkaline soils; earlier seeding is best; 15 lb/ac seed, or 10 lb/ac in drier areas; nurse crop is risky, peas may be best; 3/4 T/ac hay first season, 2-3 T/ac second year; best used for pasture and soil improvement; can be grazed early spring through fall; improves soil quality, breaks up subsoil; sweetclover as green manure too expensive for dry areas; one system used is WW/SC planted in fall (unscarified seed) at 5 lb/ac; after wheat harvest, pastured SC into late fall; field is spring plowed and SF; then WW again, this raised WW yields 3-8 bu/ac; might try with Hubam (annual) SC.

4377. McKay, H.C. and W.A. Moss. 1949. High protein wheat with conservation farming.. U. of Idaho Extension Bull. #181.
Emphasize need for legume - grass rotation to maintain soil productivity. Suggest a 7 yr sweet clover rotation or a 9 yr alfalfa rotation. Yellow sweet clover plus mountain bromegrass or slender wheatgrass; Ladak alfalfa plus smooth brome and big bluegrass (high rainfall) or crested wheatgrass (low rainfall); early spring seeding recommended without nurse crop; methods of establishment, plow sweetclover at 12-22" height; use sweetclover as a surface mulch to prevent erosion. T: soil moisture and sweetclover growth; wheat after sweetclover; yield and protein.

6174. Severance, G., B. Hunter and P. Eke. 1930. Farming systems for eastern Washington and northern Idaho.. ID Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. #173.
same as WA AES Bull. 244

6583. USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1974. Soil conditioning rating indices for major irrigated and non-irrigated crops grown in the Western U.S.. Conservation Agronomy Technical Note No. 27.
This document presents a rating system to judge how various cropping systems affect soil condition over time. It assigns numerical values to various practices and totals them over a rotational sequence, with either a +, -, or neutral outcome. It is not a method for determining erosion. The concepts presented are helpful in assessing "soil quality" for cropping systems, both irrigated and dryland.

6684. Stephens, D.E.. 1944. Effect of tillage and cropping practices on runoff, erosion, and crop yields in the wheat growing areas of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon.. USDA-SCS. Conservation practices on wheat lands of the Pacific Northwest..
An excellent summary of the dryland experiment station research in WA, ID and OR. Describes research on stubble mulching, tillage implements, crop rotations, fallow, etc. The use of sweetclover or alfalfa-grass were encouraged. T: yield, runoff, soil loss by tillage, rotation, fertilizer.

8559. Hammel, J.E.. 1989. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on bulk density and soil impedance in northern Idaho.. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 53:1515-1519.
Bulk density and soil impedance (measured with a penetrometer) were studied on a set of tillage x rotation plots after 10 yr of treatments. Tillage had a significant effect on bulk density, but not on soil impedance. Crop rotation did not significantly influence either property. There were differences with depth. Minimum and no-till soil impedance was greater than conventional till in the surface 5-15 cm. Higher impedance values under reduced tillage, while not preventing root growth, may limit root function when combined with typical cool, wet spring soils, and thus decrease crop growth potential.

10235. Collins, H.P., P.E. Rasmussen, and C.L. Douglas Jr.. 1992. Crop rotation and residue management effects on soil carbon and microbial dynamics.. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 56:in press.
Total soil and microbial biomass C and N contents were significantly greater in annual crop than wheat-fallow rotations, except when manure was applied. Microbial biomass C in annual crop and wheat-fallow rotations averaged 50 and 25%, repsectively, of that in grass pasture. Residue management significantly influenced the level of microbial biomass C; for example, burning residues reduced microbial biomass to 57% of that in plots receiving manure. Both microbial counts and microbial biomass were higher in early spring than other seasons. Annual cropping significantly reduced declines in soil organic matter and microbial biomass.

10256. Mallawatantri, A.P.. 1990. Effects of long-term management, slope position, and depth on pesticide transport parameters.. manuscript, Dept. of Crops & Soils, Washington State University, Pullman..
Pesticide adsoprtion was compared on soils from adjacent farms, with one farm using a low-input system and the other a conventional system. Adsorption of pesticide by soil is signficantly controlled by the organic carbon content of the soil. Carbon content was higher on the low-input farm, and also varied with landscape position on both farms. The relative adsorption of the four pesticides studed was diuron > metribuzin, triallate > 2,4-D. Adsorption was higher on the low-input farm, at bottom slope positions with higher soil carbon, and in surface soils than in subsoils. Weakly adsorbed pesticides should be avoided on top slope and eroded areas due to increased risk of movement. The green manure rotation on the low-input farm reduced potential pesticide transport due to higher soil carbon levels.

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