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Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
-- Jay F. Brunner
-- Jay F. Brunner
(originally published 1993)
HostsThe eyespotted budmoth feeds on apple, pear and all stone fruits, as well as on deciduous trees such as hawthorn, oak, beech, larch, and alder. It prefers rosaceous plants.
Life stagesEgg: The egg is oval, flattened, and is a translucent, creamy white. Larva: The body is a dull chocolate brown, while the head and thoracic shield are shiny dark brown to black. When full grown the larva is 3/4 to 1 inch (18 to 25 mm) long. Pupa: The pupa is golden brown and resembles a leafroller pupa. Adult: The adult moth is marked by large gray and white areas on the wings. When at rest, it has a broad white band across the middle of the wing, while the front and rear are gray.
Eyespotted bud moth larva (J. Brunner)
Eyespotted bud moth adults (J. Brunner)
Life historyThe eyespotted budmoth has only one generation per year. It overwinters as a partially grown larva within a hibernaculum in crotches of small diameter wood. Larvae become active in spring as buds begin to show green tissue. The young larva first burrows into a bud, feeding on the leaf and flower parts. Later in the spring, the larva forms a tubular feeding nest by webbing together several leaves and flower parts of a spur or growing tip.
The nest may contain one or more dying or dead leaves produced by the larva partially severing the petioles of leaves in the cluster. The first larvae are full grown by late May or early June. When mature, they pupate within the feeding nest. The pupal stage lasts 10 to 15 days. Adults begin to emerge in mid- to late June, with the flight continuing into July. Eggs are laid singly, usually on the lower surfaces of leaves, and incubation takes 7 to 14 days. Larvae begin feeding on lower leaf surfaces, constructing feeding sites near the midribs. The sites are covered by silken webs strewn with frass. Leaves touching one another or a leaf touching an apple are also desirable feeding sites. Development continues until larvae are half grown, usually by late July or early August, when they leave feeding sites and construct hibernacula. The larvae incorporate bits of frass and plant parts into the hibernacula so that after some weathering they appear similar to the bark and are inconspicuous.