2018 Crop Protection Guide for Tree Fruits in Washington

Pesticide Intervals & Impacts

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Natural Enemy Relative Impact Guide

This table is intended as a guide to the relative impact of commonly applied pesticides to natural enemies that are important components of an integrated pest management program on tree fruits. Use it in conjunction with the Pest Control Program for each fruit crop. These give recommended rates and timing of sprays. The impact of some insecticides may vary considerably with the history of use in a given orchard. This is especially true relative to their effect on the western predatory mite (WPM) and the apple rust mite (ARM).

Footnotes follow the second half of the table at the bottom of the page.

Sources: Koppert Biological Systems, WSU Crop Protection Guide, USDA-NIFRA SCRI Project “Enhancing Biological Control in Western Orchards”, USDA-IFAFS & USDA-RAMP Projects “Areawide Codling Moth Control Program II”, International Organisation for Biological Control (IOBC), Cornell University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of California Extension

 Relative Impact Rating1
Trade NameCompoundWestern Predatory Mite2Mite Predators*Apple Rust Mite3Colpoclypeus florus4Pnigalio flavipes4Lepidopteran Parasitoids*
Acramite 50WSbifenazateLLH
Actara 25WDGthiamethoxamL8ML8M
Agri-Mek 0.15EC/Epi-Mek 0.15ECabamectinH6HH6M6LH
Altacor 35WDGchlorantraniliproleL15LL
Ambush 25WP/Pounce 3.2ECpermethrinHHLMH
Apollo 4SCclofentezineLLLL
Asana XLesfenvalerateHHLMM-HH
Avaunt 30DGindoxacarbL9LL9M
Aza-Direct 1.2%L/Neemix 4.5%LazadirachtinLLM
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LLLLLL
Belt 4SCflubendiamideLL
Calypso 4FthiaclopridLL
Carzol 92SPformetanate hydrochlorideM-HMM-HHH
Centaur 70WbuprofezinLL
Clutch 50WDGclothianidinL
CM granulosis virus LLLLLL
Confirm 2FtebufenozideLL
Danitol 2.4ECfenpropathrinHHH
Delegate 25WGspinetoramM-H13,15M
Dimilin 2LdiflubenzuronLHL
Entrust 80WspinosadMLM-HHH
Envidor 2SCspirodiclofenML
Esteem 35WPpyriproxyfenLML
FujiMite 5%ECfenpyroximateHMH
Guthion 50WPazinphos methylLMLHLH
Imidan 70WphosmetLLLHLH
Intrepid 2FmethoxyfenozideLLLLLL
lime sulfur/calcium polysulfide M-HH
Movento 2LspirotetramatH15L
Nexter 75WSBpyridabenMMHM-HH
petroleum oil-summer M6,7ML6LL
potassium salts of fatty acids M6HM6H
Proclaim 5SGemamectin benzoateLL
Provado/Admire Pro 4.6LimidaclopridL8ML8M-H6H
Rimon 0.83ECnovaluronM-HLM
Savey 50DF/Onager 1EChexythiazoxLLLL
Success 2FspinosadMLM-HHH
sulfur, dry flowable H15MM
sulfur, wettable M
Surround WPkaolin clayM-HMM
Ultor 1.25LspirotetramatH15L
Vendex 50WPfenbutatin oxideMLHLL
Vydate 2LoxamylHH
Zeal 72WDGetoxazoleMM

table continues

 Relative Impact Rating1
Trade NameCompoundAphelinus maliAphid Parasitoids & Predators*Coccinellids4Lacewings*Predatory True Bugs*Scale Insect Enemies*
Acramite 50WSbifenazateLLML
Actara 25WDGthiamethoxamLMHH
Agri-Mek 0.15EC/Epi-Mek 0.15ECabamectinHM6LHL
Altacor 35WDGchlorantraniliproleL14,15LH15H15L
Ambush 25WP/Pounce 3.2ECpermethrinHHHHH
Apollo 4SCclofentezineLLLLL
Asana XLesfenvalerateHHHH
Avaunt 30DGindoxacarbLMLMH
Aza-Direct 1.2%L/Neemix 4.5%LazadirachtinLLLL
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LLLLL
Belt 4SCflubendiamideMLL
Calypso 4FthiaclopridM-H14MHH
Carzol 92SPformetanate hydrochlorideLMH
Centaur 70WbuprofezinLLLM
Clutch 50WDGclothianidin
CM granulosis virus LLLLLL
Confirm 2FtebufenozideLLLL
Danitol 2.4ECfenpropathrinHHHHH
Delegate 25WGspinetoramH15H15LH15H15
Dimilin 2LdiflubenzuronLLHLM
Entrust 80WspinosadMLLL
Envidor 2SCspirodiclofenLMLM
Esteem 35WPpyriproxyfenLLLLH
FujiMite 5%ECfenpyroximateHMMLL
Guthion 50WPazinphos methylH14HHHMH
Imidan 70WphosmetHHLL
Intrepid 2FmethoxyfenozideMLLLL
lime sulfur/calcium polysulfide 
Movento 2LspirotetramatL14
Nexter 75WSBpyridabenMHH
petroleum oil-summer LLLL
potassium salts of fatty acids HLHH
Proclaim 5SGemamectin benzoateLLL
Provado/Admire Pro 4.6LimidaclopridHMM-HHM
Rimon 0.83ECnovaluronM14M15H15H15H15
Savey 50DF/Onager 1EChexythiazoxLLLLL
Success 2FspinosadMLLL
sulfur, dry flowable L14L15M15M15M15M
sulfur, wettable L14
Surround WPkaolin clayLM-H5
Ultor 1.25LspirotetramatL14
Vendex 50WPfenbutatin oxideLLLLL
Vydate 2LoxamylHMHHH
Zeal 72WDGetoxazoleLMM

*These ratings are based on acute toxicity of pesticides on natural enemies represented in the groupings shown.
1Rating system: L = low impact, M = moderate impact, H = high impact, no data available.
2WPM = western predatory mite, Typhlodromus occidentalis.
3ARM = apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali. Although ARM is a plant feeding species, its presence is very useful in maintaining populations of Typhlodromus occidentalis.
4C. florus is a wasp parasitoid of leafrollers; P. flavipes is a wasp parasitoid of western tentiform leafminer. See Orchard Pest Management for more information.
5Coccinellid data based on bioassays of late instar larvae of Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia convergens, and Coccinella transversoguttata. Kaolin data based on bioassays using Stethorus punctum.
6Overall negative impact is reduced due to short residual activity.
7Spray volume may be important in determining toxicity.
8Preliminary data; based on field trials of 4 cover sprays.
9Preliminary data; based on field trials with a single application.
10The use of this material has been associated with mite problems, although the effect is inconsistent; there appears to be moderate acute toxicity, but more severe reproductive effects on WPM.
11100% mortality/sterility was caused by exposure to novaluron
12Novaluron has little or no acute toxicity to lacewing eggs, larvae, or adults; however, this material caused a near-complete shutdown of egg hatch from exposed adults.
13While this material is toxic to WPM, it is also somewhat miticidal, and thus may not cause flare-ups of mites.
14Preliminary data, based on laboratory acute toxicity tests.
15Acute mortality is low, however, new information shows that exposure to this product suppresses the natural enemies population growth
16Mite predators include: Phytoseiidae Amblyseius, Phytoseiidae Typhlodromus, Coccinellidae Stethorus, Cecidomyiidae Feltiella; predatory true bugs include Orius, Anthocoris, Deraeocoris and Macrolophus; scale insect predator includes: Cryptolaemus based on available literature.

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