April 16, 2003
Vol. 5 No. 2
By Mike Doerr, WSU-TFREC, Wenatchee, WA
Oregon Implementation Project
The Oregon implementation project has been supervised by Oregon State University entomologists, Drs. Helmut Riedl, Richard Hilton, Philip VanBuskirk and Steve Castagnoli This project compares pheromone-based programs for management of codling moth on pears and apples supplemented by either broad-spectrum or selective pesticides. Demonstration orchards were established in both the southern (Medford) and the northern (Hood River) pear growing regions of Oregon. Three mature pear orchards ranging in size from 20 to 40 acres were used as demonstration sites in the Medford area and two pear and one apple orchard (20-30 acres each) were used in the Hood River area. The orchards consisted of a variety of cultivars, including Comice, Bosc, red and green Anjou, red and green Bartlett and Forelle. An attempt was made to make treatment comparisons between the same cultivars wherever possible. The apple site was Golden Delicious and Granny Smith.
Mating disruption was employed as the primary codling moth control at all sites. In the southern Oregon sites, Disrupt CM dispensers (220-240/acre) were used at two orchards and Isomate-CTT (240/acre) at the other. In the northern Oregon sites, Isomate-C Plus and Isomate-C TT dispensers were used at one site (200/acre interior, 300/acre along borders) while the others used Isomate C-Plus dispensers at 200/acre. It is not the intention of the AWII program to dictate what pheromone treatments are required in the demonstration orchards, but rather to evaluate the available codling moth mating disruption programs gain experience using all tools available to supplement these programs. At all sites codling moth was monitored with pheromone-baited and DA lure-baited traps. The high load Suterra Biolure was used in all pheromone traps and was replaced every eight weeks. Leaf, beating tray and fruit samples were taken as needed to monitor for a variety of other pests. The goal of the Oregon implementation project was to compare the effect on pest and natural enemy populations of an organophosphate, Imidan (phosmet), and OP alternatives such as the insect growth regulator, Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) as well as others.
- Sulfur plus oil at dormant and/or delayed dormant followed by the insect growth regulator Esteem at pink provided effective early-season control of pear psylla and contributed to leafroller and San Jose scale control.
- The selective insecticide Intrepid was more effective than the OP Imidan for codling moth control in northern Oregon resulting in less damaged fruit and equally effective in southern Oregon orchards.
- Imidan had the same tendency to stimulate pear psylla build-up in 2002 as in 2001. Build-up may be related to (reproductive stimulation) hormolygosis since natural enemy levels recovered soon after application.
- The chloronicotinyl insecticide Provado provided only short-term pear psylla control.
- Pheromone traps were several times more effective than kairomonal DA lure traps for monitoring codling moth in pear orchards under mating disruption. As in 2001, the one exception were orchards with Comice pears where DA lure traps performed better than pheromone traps.
- Similar to results in 2001, the Suterra Biolure performed better than any other lures tested for attracting codling moth at low and high population densities.
- A pheromone trap, which employed a proprietary powder medium to ensnare attracted moths showed promise as an alternative to polybutene adhesive-coated traps.
- A mass trapping experiment to trap out moths using a combination of food and pheromone lures with powder as trapping medium was unsuccessful.
A major focus of the Areawide II project is taking the knowledge researchers develop from the demonstration orchards and disseminating it growers and industry personnel. The means by which this is accomplished is through a variety of educational programs that support the adoption of multi-tactic pheromone-based pest management programs. Oregon State University entomologists Drs. Philip VanBuskirk, Richard Hilton Helmut Riedl and Steven Castagnoli are developing and implementing broadly based educational programs through a series of measured steps.
Organization Development-Technical support structure with research and extension components and local and/or regional advisory groups were maintained to ensure information flow required for wider adoption.
Information Dissemination-Information that was generated from the two apple and pear growing districts in Oregon, Hood River and Medford, was delivered to orchardists in local/regional newsletters, local field days and in local grower and advisory meetings. In Medford, bi-weekly advisory meetings with chemical house fieldmen, growers and orchard scouts were held to discuss arthropod development, monitoring, and best approach to control in an IPM program. In Hood River, information sessions included a regional Orchard IPM Workshop for growers and fieldmen, several small group sessions with chemical house fieldmen and growers on Web-based resources for pest management, and periodic meetings with fieldmen from major area packinghouse and chemical house fieldmen to discuss current status of arthropod development and control. In all nine hundred and two participants attended forty programs conducted between the two areas where information was shared with attendees.
The Pest Alert IPM Web page, a grower/extension/researcher interactive web site (http://ipmnet.bcc.orst.edu/pestalert/index.cfm), was designed and implemented with the assistance of the OSU-Integrated Plant Protection Center (IPPC). The Pest Alert web page provides orchardists in Oregon with information and alerts concerning insect and disease development. When notified of insect and disease alerts by e-mail, growers then are taught to access weather date form their closest weather station in order to better determine their own situation and need to respond. All southern Oregon and Hood River weather stations have been tied to the IPPC weather web page that calculates insect (e.g. codling moth, San Jose Scale, obliquebanded leafroller, pandemis leafroller, cherry fruit fly) and disease (e.g. fire blight, apple scab and pear scab) degree-day models for the grower or consultant. Additionally, the web page has up-to-date IPM research information and the ability for the grower or consultant to search the database or ask questions on any topic dealing with tree fruit IPM. Since its inception in late February 2002, there have been 3809 hits from all over the world for an average of 544 hits monthly.
Technical Training-An advisory group was formed during 2001 to discuss what training materials were needed to assist orchardists in the implementation of a pheromone-based program. Two projects were identified: 1) the development of an orchard monitoring training video, and 2) development and translation of orchard monitoring materials into Spanish. The videotape has been filmed and a computer program to digitize the film for editing was purchased with the editing of the material into its final form to begin in late 2002. The Spanish translation of orchard monitoring materials for pear was completed in October 2002 and is in the discussion stage with OSU-Agriculture Communications and the Good Fruit Grower for publishing in the spring of 2003.
Outreach Support-Abandoned commercial orchard blocks and untended backyard fruit trees continue to have a negative impact on the implementation and success of pheromone-based IPM programs. To address this problem in Southern Oregon, a videotape entitled "Abandoned Orchards: The Menace within our Community" was developed in cooperation with the local Fruit Growers League and has been aired over 30 times to 72,000 cable subscribers on public access channels. In addition numerous presentations were made to the community using the videotape to make citizens aware of the problem.
Besides the videotape, two pamphlets, "BE A GOOD NEIGHBOR" and "BEING GOOD NEIGHBORS" were developed and distributed to landowners that neighbor commercial orchards and patrons of local nurseries in southern Oregon and Hood River. In Hood River, efforts to inform the general public besides the pamphlet described above included articles in the local newspaper and regional small farms newsletters explaining the importance of controlling tree fruit pests on backyard and small-scale and hobby farmers. Additionally, OSU Master Gardeners emphasized the importance of controlling pests on backyard fruit trees when receiving requests for information about planting or maintaining home fruit trees.
Due, in part, to a concerted educational effort utilizing the abandoned orchard videotape and the pamphlet developed for southern Oregon described above, the Jackson County Board of Commissioners adopted an Abandoned Orchard Ordinance (#2002-21) requiring property owners to control orchard pests and diseases or the county would address the problem on their behalf and place a lien on the property to recoup expenses. The ordinance applies not only to owners of commercial orchards but also to owners of any fruit trees that are identified as posing a threat to commercial orchards.
Mike Doerr, Coordinator Areawide II
Phone: 509-663-8181 x248