|Vol. 3, No. 10||November 1, 1998|
Inside this issue: CAMP 1998 - The Year In Review
Web links:...Ted Alway's Areawide IPM page ...USDA Yakima Areawide IPM page (with CAMP site descriptions) ...WSU-TFREC Entomology home page ...Index to Areawide IPM Update newsletters
Cooperating agencies: Washington State University, Oregon State University, University of California, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Chelan County. Cooperative Extension programs and employment are available to all without discrimination.
CAMP 1998 - The Year In Review
The Original Five SitesRandall Island - 1998 was a remarkable easy pest control year at this site in the Sacramento River Delta region, according to Dr. Steve Welter, the project's coordinator. The 760 acres of pears farmed here completed their sixth year under codling moth mating disruption, and fourth as part of CAMP. Mating disruption use is spreading to other pear growers in the region and beyond, particularly as pest control advisors with experience at Randall Island introduce it to growers elsewhere. Codling moth populations were dramatically lower in 1998 at this site, as well as throughout the Delta region. This decline is presumed to be a consequence of the unusually cool weather experienced in 1998. Seasonal catch of codling moths in pheromone traps commonly exceeded 1000 per trap just six years ago within Randall Island, but seasonal totals this year were generally less than 20 per trap.
The growers here managed codling moth with a single application Isomate C+ pheromone dispensers at either 300 or 400 per acre, supplemented with one Penncap-M spray in the first generation. This is a big reduction in control costs from six years ago when these same growers were making two applications of Isomate C+ at 400 per acre, together with two insecticide applications for codling moth. Applying Penncap-M has proven helpful in the resistance management program practiced here, as with its use they have been able to reduce the level of codling moth resistance to the other commonly used organophosphate, Guthion. Caution was expressed again about the hazards of Penncap-M for honeybee hives near a treated orchard. Fruit surveys during harvest turned up almost no codling moth infestation (0.007%). Other arthropod pests, among them pear psylla, spider mites and leafrollers, posed very little problem for the Randall Island growers in 1998. The wet spring and early summer in the area instead aggravated disease problems, among them pear scab and fire blight.Carpenter Hill - This 500-acre site near Medford, OR, coordinated by Laura Naumes, completed its fourth year under a soft pest management program in which mating disruption and foliar oil sprays are central components. Most pear growers apply three post-bloom oils for codling moth, mite and pear psylla control and only one organophosphate spray late in the season. Close to 25% of the pears were not treated with oil this year out of growing concern with possible chronic effects of oil use on tree vigor. Most growers used the Isomate C+ dispenser at 400/acre, with 67 acres in 1998 being treated instead with the Hercon Disrupt CM dispenser at 200/acre.
Pear psylla and codling moth, the principal pests for most pear growers, were again controlled well this year, with minimal fruit damage (0.16% on average for codling moth, 0.06% for pear psylla). Fruit damage from leafroller increased, to 0.58% on average, most of it coming from the blocks where the foliar oil sprays were omitted. More disturbing has been the continued increase each year of damage by true bugs, primarily lygus and stink bugs. The increased bug problem has been experienced by growers throughout the Rogue River Valley and is not limited to growers using the selective pest management program used within the CAMP site. Fruit damage by bugs within the Carpenter Hill site averaged 2.25%, up from 1.82% in 1997 and 0.89% in 1996. Overall pest damage within the CAMP blocks has been comparable to conventional blocks in the region. Control costs have averaged $180-335 less in CAMP blocks, due principally to reductions in costly miticides and psyllicides. The use of codling moth mating disruption is growing in the area, with about 1500 acres using it outside of CAMP in 1998.West Parker Heights - This site in the Yakima Valley expanded in 1998 by 100 acres to 554 acres. Brad Higbee, site coordinator, reports that the growers elected to use Isomate C+ at 200 dispensers/acre in the original blocks, with the expansion blocks using 400/acre. Mating disruption was supplemented with one cover spray to about half of the acreage, with the remainder treating just borders and hot spots. Although first generation codling moth catch in pheromone traps was up considerably in 1998 over the previous year, this limited control program succeeded in dropping populations to very low levels in the second generation, and fruit damage at harvest averaged a low 0.2%. This is in contrast with conventional comparison blocks in the area in which 5 to 6 or more cover sprays were applied this year; many of these still suffered 1 to 3% codling moth damage despite the heavy spray program.
Secondary pests were of little concern in the West Parker Heights orchards in 1998. Leafrollers, despite some exceptionally high catches in pheromone traps, caused little damage from larval feeding, with most blocks sustaining only 0.1-0.3% damage. As in previous years, pear psylla numbers remained substantially below those of nearby conventional blocks, resulting from the biological control made possible by the absence of broad spectrum insecticides post bloom.Howard Flat - Codling moth populations have continued to decline at Howard Flat, says coordinator Tom Fruit. Only 240 total moths were trapped this year across the 1100 acres, versus 342 last year and nearly 4000 in 1995 when the CAMP program began. Nearly 75% of the traps recorded no catch the entire season. The number of Isomate C+ dispensers used per acre continued to drop, to an average of 200-250 per acre in 1998. This year also saw a further reduction in the cover sprays applied, with only about 25% of the acreage receiving a single cover for codling moth. Fruit damage from codling moth has remained very low; average damage is close to 0.1%, with the little damage found largely confined to just three blocks.
The most serious pest for growers on Howard Flat this year, and for many growers in the Chelan and Wenatchee districts, was stink bug. Fruit damage averaged 0.25% across the CAMP site, but individual blocks suffered far greater damage in some cases. The problem has become more widespread, spreading further into the interior of individual blocks and the interior of the areawide site. Growers and consultants around the region are frustrated by the difficulty of detecting and controlling this pest. Leafrollers caused almost no damage this year, with the damage found limited to a very few blocks. This is despite the very high numbers of moths caught in pheromone traps across the site (12,000 in 1998 vs. 3700 in 1997). This is another example of the limited value of leafroller pheromone traps for predicting the risk of larval damage.Lake Osoyoos - This CAMP site near the Canadian border increased greatly in size this year, reports coordinator Glenn Richardson. Over 500 acres and 16 new growers were added to increase the total to nearly 1300 acres. The new acreage had low to high codling moth pressure within it; the growers there used the full rate (400/acre) of Isomate C+ and, with one or two covers, achieved good codling moth control with fruit damage levels at harvest less than half of nearby conventional blocks (0.4% vs. 1.0%). Within the original CAMP blocks the codling moth populations have dropped to very low levels, with only 26 wild moths caught all year in 163 traps! For the first time, these growers applied NO cover sprays for codling moth control, even to orchard borders. Sterile codling moths, provided by the SIR facility in nearby Osoyoos, British Columbia, were again released on 480 acres of the site. Overflooding rations of sterile to wild males exceeded 600:1. Growers used Isomate C+ at the 400/acre rate mostly, with a few opting for 200/acre. Harvest time samples show that fruit damage from codling will be below 0.1% for the third consecutive year.
Leafrollers have been an increasing problem in the Oroville area for several years. Although catch in pheromone traps was well below that of last year, fruit damage at harvest (0.45%) was similar to the previous two years. Leafroller damage in the expansion blocks and conventional comparison blocks averaged 1.00-1.15%. Stink bugs also became a concern this year for growers in the area, with fruit damage increasing to about 0.5%, up from less than 0.1% the year before.
Seven sites received funding from CAMP in 1998 for one year only to establish areawide management programs.South Shore - The 650 acres here along the south shore of Lake Chelan were managed as part of a Greater Howard Flat CAMP site by coordinator Tom Fruit. This sloping site used Isomate C+ dispensers at 200/acre across most orchards, with the full 400/acre rate being deployed along the top 5 to 6 rows of steep blocks. Codling moth pressure was generally low to moderate. Total seasonal catch averaged 3.3 moths/trap; in common with most first year sites, second generation codling moth catch was but a small percentage (15%)of the first flight numbers. Most growers applied but a single cover spray, with some additional spots and borders being treated if trap catch indicated a need. At harvest, damage from codling moth was extremely low, coming in at less than 0.01%. Despite very high catch of leafrollers in pheromone traps, larval populations were low and fruit damage was a paltry 0.05%. There was slightly more damage on average from stink bug and campylomma (ca. 0.1% each), but blocks of concern were very few. East Wenatchee - This site involved 12 growers and slightly over 500 acres, with coordination provided by Scott Driscoll. About half of the acreage was treated with 200 Isomate C+ dispensers per acre, with the remainder, including orchard borders and several organic blocks, treated with 400/acre. Codling moth pressure ranged from low to moderate and 50% of the acreage received no cover sprays. Fruit damage at harvest from codling moth was very low, with the highest damage found being only 0.2%. Leafrollers were a far greater concern, with a history of damage throughout the area. Some fruit damage by leafrollers was found in every block. A 13-acre block used the Dual dispenser from Pacific Biocontrol, containing both leafroller and codling moth pheromone; despite shutting down leafroller trap catch in the block there was still substantial damage. The site's growers indicate they will continue with mating disruption use in 1999, and an effort will be made to offer trapping services. Babcock Ridge - Located just west of Quincy, WA, this CAMP site was coordinated by Nick Stephens and involved 7 growers and nearly 700 acres. All blocks were treated with Isomate C+ dispensers, almost entirely at 200/acre. Codling moth pressure has historically been low here, confirmed again this season by the low moth catch in traps (1.3 moths/trap for the season). Slightly over 50% of the acreage received a single cover spray. Leafrollers tend to have high populations in this area, but the site's growers have managed to keep them well under control with a delayed dormant oil/Lorsban application and several Bt sprays. The Bt sprays worked quite well this year due to the very warm weather during and after bloom when they were applied. No damage from either codling moth or leafroller were found in harvest samples. However, the Lacanobia fruitworm (Lacanobia subjuncta), a cutworm relative, did develop high numbers across much of the site. One to two broad spectrum insecticide sprays were applied in the summer for this pest, countering the reduction of insecticides applied for codling moth and leafroller. Cutworm-type damage amounted to 0.33% on average. Bench Road - 1250 acres and 9 growers participated in this CAMP site located west of Othello, WA, in the Columbia Basin. Bob Thompson provided the site coordination. This was the first year of mating disruption use for all the growers here. They elected to use the Isomate C+ dispenser at 250/acre, with a 400/acre rate applied to areas with a history of higher codling moth populations. Seasonal codling moth catch averaged 4.2 moths/trap, with nearly 50% of the traps catching 2 or less moths for the year. One cover was applied to most orchards, with limited areas receiving additional sprays depending upon trap catch. Codling moth damage at harvest was confined to two small areas, and in neither case did it exceed 1.0%. The growers within the Bench Road CAMP are happy with the low cost and clean fruit and plan to continue with mating disruption next year. Elephant Mountain - This site is located on the south side of the Moxee Valley, several miles west of Yakima, WA, and involved 670 acres and 6 growers in 1998. Although considered to have low codling moth pressure, there were hot spots within the project that raised the seasonal average moth catch to 17.1 per trap. 85% of the total catch occurred in the first generation. The use of Isomate C+, mostly at 200/acre with hot spots at 400/acre, together with a single cover for the first generation reduced codling moth populations nicely in most blocks; very few areas applied additional covers. The growers estimate they saved 2 to 3 cover sprays from the previous year. Codling moth damage was equal to or below 1997 levels, averaging 0.1% or less. High numbers of pandemis leafrollers were caught in pheromone traps, but most orchards had no damage at harvest. A few blocks were surprised to find close to 1% leafroller damage at harvest and will step up control efforts next year. Lower Roza - This ambitious CAMP site involved some 1700 acres and 23 growers, spread out over a 10 square mile area and interspersed with hops, grapes, stone fruit and field crops. Historical codling moth pressure ranged from low to extreme (60% fruit damage in one block in 1997!). Isomate C+ dispensers were installed across the participating blocks at densities of 200/acre (75% of the acreage) to 300-400/acre (25% of the acreage). To reduce costs and encourage the sustainability of the project, coordinator Naná Simone and assistant Chuck Lochrie tried a novel approach in checking the over 700 pheromone traps deployed. After initial training and siting of the traps, they made the growers responsible for maintaining each trap and collecting and submitting the weekly trap catch data. Eight of the growers did their own trap work while the remainder had their consultants (either private or from an agrochemical company) do this work for them. Cooperation was very good; if the data was slow to come in it often took only a reminder call to get it.
First generation codling moth catch per trap averaged 25, indicative of the scattered moderate to high populations found there; 13 traps had over 200 moths in the first generation alone! An average of two covers were applied in the first generation and codling moth catch for the remainder of the season averaged only 2/trap. Growers were very happy with the low damage encountered at harvest, with no more than 1% of the blocks having over 0.1% damage. Pandemis leafrollers and cutworms, primarily Lacanobia fruitworm, were also monitored but were generally not economic problems.Rogers Mesa - CAMP headed east in 1998 to the western slope of the Rocky Mountains to establish a CAMP site on Rogers Mesa. Co-coordinators were Steve Ela, a grower in the project, and Larry Traubel, the best (and only!) tree fruit fieldman in the state. 600 acres and 17 growers were involved, half of whom had experience, often quite limited, with mating disruption previously. Isomate C+ was used at 200/acre to most of the acreage, with 400/acre applied to many borders, known hot spots and organic blocks. Most first time mating disruption users had sprayed at least four times for codling moth the previous year; covers were reduced to between one and two in 1998. Seasonal total catch averaged 30 moths/trap, with 8% of the traps accounting for 50% of the catch. There was a clear reduction in codling moth damage from the previous year, with a few particularly infested blocks being cleaned up nicely. Obliquebanded leafrollers were caught at very high numbers across the project, which was a bit of a surprise to most growers. Leafroller damage was limited but with their potential for increase the growers will need to be prepared next year. Grower response to the CAMP effort was 100% positive, with all planning to continue mating disruption use next year. Mating disruption is also spreading to other Colorado growing areas.
Five sites have been selected to receive CAMP funding in 1999, the final year of this program funded by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service. They are:Milton-Freewater - The site has almost 800 acres of apples in northeastern Oregon and will be coordinated by Lyla Lampson. Codling moth pressure ranges from light to heavy; leafroller pressure is very heavy. Entiat Valley - situated on the west side of the Columbia River some 16 miles north of Wenatchee, WA, this close to 1700 acre site is composed of almost equal parts apples and pears. Nearly two-thirds of the acreage has been under mating disruption for at least one year. Co-coordinators are Norma Todd and William Bayless. Highland - Coordinated by Bob Adams, this site will involve close to 1000 acres near the town of Cowiche, located about 15 miles west of Yakima, WA. There were some 400 acres of mating disruption in this area in 1998. West Valley - Dave Gleason, coordinator of the 1998 Elephant Mountain CAMP site, will return in 1999 to lend his expertise as coordinator of this at least 500 acre site just west of Yakima. This is an area of moderate to heavy codling moth pressure and many leafrollers, which should prove a suitable challenge for him. Lake County - This site in northern California is located near the town of Kelseyville and will consist of over 400 acres of pears. It will break new ground in codling moth mating disruption as it will deploy the Paramount Puffer CM, a battery-powered, mechanical device, to dispense the pheromone instead of the common Isomate C+ dispenser. Rachel Elkins, of University of California Cooperative Extension, will coordinate the site.
This is the last edition of Areawide IPM Update, as my position with WSU-Cooperative Extension has come to an end. I hope that this newsletter has been as educational and enjoyable for you as it has been for me.
Ted Alway, Editor
Phone: (509) 664-5540
Fax: (509) 664-5561
Partial Funding provided by: Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.
WSU Cooperative Extension, Chelan County
400 Washington St.
Wenatchee, WA 98801
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