Washington State University Cooperative Extension
The Newsletter of Pheromone-based Orchard Pest Management
is increasingly being used at less then the full rate of 400 dispensers/acre. 73%
used this dispenser at reduced rates on all or part of their acreage, up from 45%
in last year's survey. Many treated just borders or known hot spots with 400/acre.
Among first year users, 85% began MD use with Isomate C+ rates of close to 200/acre. In
1998, 70% of the growers surveyed plan to use Isomate C+ rates of about 200/acre,
15% at rates close to 300/acre and 15% at the full rate of 400/acre.
was used in 1997 by 12 growers on 6% of the MD acreage in the survey, down from 18%
of the acres in the previous survey. Only 7 growers planned to continue using this
dispenser in 1998.
MD was supplemented with insecticides by 86% of those responding, even if only to
limited border areas, and 14% used MD alone for codling moth control. 23% of pear
producers used no supplemental sprays, versus 12% of apple growers. 9% of the surveyed
growers applied less than one full cover spray, 39% applied one cover, 30% applied one
to two covers, and 8% applied more than two sprays for codling moth control in addition
to using MD. Among first year MD users, 95% applied at least a partial cover spray; this percentage was reduced to 83% in the second year of MD and 76% among those using
MD three or more years.
Guthion was by far the most common material used as a supplemental spray, used by
90% of the growers. Other materials used, to a far lesser degree, included Imidan ,
Penncap-M , ryania and foliar oils.
When asked if they were satisfied with their use of MD, 92% of growers responded "yes",
3% responded "no", and 5% were undecided. The most common reasons that growers cited
for including MD in their pest management programs were that it resulted in less
or no codling moth damage, less codling moth control costs or both. Many stated that
by using MD together with a reduced cover spray program they were able to clean up
previously high pressure/high codling moth damage orchards. Many growers noted increased numbers of beneficial insects (parasites and predators) in their orchards when MD
was used and cover sprays were reduced but only a few indicated that they actually
observed lower secondary pest populations as a result. Pear psylla, and to a lesser
extent aphids and leafminers, were said to be better controlled biologically in these
cases. A number of growers said they were spurred to include MD in their control
programs by the potential loss or restriction of use of many pesticides as a result
of the Food Quality Protection Act.
Even growers who were satisfied with MD complained about its cost, which was the single
greatest concern. Several growers in low codling moth pressure areas, where but
one or two sprays annually provided good control, were reducing or even stopping
their use of MD the following year as they felt they would have more cost-effective pest
control without it. Secondary pests (pests other then codling moth)
were a concern for many in this survey. Some pest problems (leafrollers and, for
some, webworms) frequently became worse when cover sprays of broad-spectrum insecticides
were reduced or eliminated; other secondary pests (particularly stink bugs, campylomma and cutworms) caused problems apparently unrelated to MD use but requiring insecticide
Based on this survey, and other comments from growers and consultants in the state,
we can expect the use of codling moth MD to continue to grow for at least the next
few seasons. The increase in MD acreage in Washington has averaged nearly 40% per
year for the past four years. More growers will come to echo the statement of one respondent
who stated, "After seeing the results, I'm a believer".
|Vol. 3, No. 6 || || June 1, 1998|
Inside this issue:
Alway's Areawide IPM page
Areawide IPM page (with CAMP site descriptions)
...WSU-TFREC Entomology home
...Index to Areawide IPM Update newsletters
Cooperating agencies: Washington State University, Oregon
State University, University of California, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
and Chelan County.
Cooperative Extension programs and employment are available to all without
Codling Moth Mating Disruption Use in Washington State
ating disruption of codling moth is being used on an increasing number of acres in
Washington State. An estimated 37,000 to 40,000 acres are being treated in 1998,
up from close to 27,000 acres last year. Total acres treated with codling moth mating
disruption in western North America should approach 60,000 acres this year. I surveyed
Washington growers who used this practice in 1997 to learn the particulars of their
mating disruption use and to learn of their plans for future years.
153 growers responded to the survey, representing nearly 11,500 acres of mating disruption
(MD) in 1997. All apple and pear growing districts in Central Washington were represented,
with nearly 65% of the treated acreage coming from North Central Washington (Chelan, Douglas and Okanogan Counties), 20% from the Yakima Valley and 15% from
the Columbia Basin. The MD acreage was mostly in apples, but 755 acres of pears,
farmed by 44 growers, were also included.
First time users of MD accounted for over 40% of the respondents, reflected in the
fact that this survey group had no more than 7000 acres in MD in 1996. Growers with
two years of experience represented 12% of the group, three year users 18%, four
to five years 17%, and six or more years 10%. These same growers planned to expand MD acres
further in 1998 by about 25%. Of the total surveyed group, 37% planned to increase
treated acres, 56% planned to stay the same (most of this group having already treated their entire acreage) and 7% planned to reduce the acres treated; those reducing
acres did so either because they figured MD was not cost effective for them or they
had reduced their bearing acreage.
The Isomate C+
pheromone dispenser was by far the most popular, being used by 92% of the growers
surveyed. The Checkmate CM
dispenser was used by 5% of the growers, and 3% used both types in their orchards.
Notes From the New CAMP Sites
even new sites received funding from the USDA-ARS in 1998, and are using codling
moth mating disruption on an areawide basis for the first time.
South Shore (Lake Chelan) -
Tom Fruit is coordinating this 600 acre site, in addition to the over 1600 acres he
works with in the Howard Flat CAMP site. Casey Mackey is assisting him. Twelve
growers are involved. The site rises up steeply from the shores of Lake Chelan,
with some blocks steep enough to almost require a rope belay! Codling moth pressure historically
has been low to moderate, and there has been no use of mating disruption here previously.
Moth catch totals after the first several weeks are moderate, with a few hot spots catching up to 25 moths/trap/week. Most growers will apply two covers for the
first generation, with some areas with low counts to receive only a single spray.
Isomate C+ dispensers are being used at about 200 per acre, often with a higher
rate of 400/acre along the top edges of the orchards. As in most Washington apple orchards,
bloom was very heavy and a large crop is anticipated.
East Wenatchee -
Close to 600 acres are involved in this site by the airport near East Wenatchee, WA.
Twelve growers are participating, and coordination is provided by Scott Driscoll
of Stemilt Management. There were nearly 350 acres using codling moth mating disruption
in this area in 1997. Initial codling moth catch has been low, with less than 30%
of the traps with any catch in the first several weeks. Leafrollers have been a
problem for some growers in this area; surveys so far have turned up few larvae,
and pheromone traps were installed late in May. Some of the acreage will use the Isomate CM/LR
("dual") dispenser this year, installing them when the first leafroller flight begins.
Babcock Ridge -
This site lies several miles west of Quincy, WA, and involves 720 acres and 8 growers.
Coordination is provided by Nick Stephens, with assistance from Gabriel Flores.
Codling moth pressure has been low, and initial counts this spring confirm this.
The growers are using 200 Isomate C+ per acre. Most growers supplemented mating disruption
with one cover spray applied at a delayed first cover timing (360 degree-days after
biofix), with a few sites with higher trap catch opting for two covers for the first
generation. Some blocks with no codling moth catch treated their borders only. Obliquebanded
leafroller has been a serious pest for growers in this area in the past. Most have
used two applications of Bt this spring for control. Control appears to have been very good, with very warm weather during the bloom and petal fall periods providing
good Bt activity. Pheromone traps are also being used to monitor the flights of
Bertha armyworm and Lacanobia subjuncta.
This site involves over 1350 acres and 9 growers and is located along Bench Road, southwest of the city
of Othello, WA, in the Columbia Basin. The area is fairly flat, isolated from other
growing districts and fairly windy. There has been no use of mating disruption here
in previous years. The site coordinator is Bob Thompson. Codling moth pressure has
historically ranged from low to high, and initial moth catches in pheromone traps
this spring confirm this range. Although over half of the traps caught no moths
in the first few weeks, there are a few blocks that have average cumulative moth catches exceeding
10 per trap. Isomate C+ is being used by most growers at close to 250 dispensers/acre,
with 350-400/acre being used on many borders and in hot spots. All growers have applied an initial cover spray and will decide on later treatments on the basis
of moth catch in traps.
The Moxee site is located east of the city of Yakima, WA, along the foothills on the south
side of the Moxee Valley, below Elephant Mountain. Dave Gleason is coordinating
this site, which contains 670 acres and 6 growers. Codling moth pressure has generally
been low but, like at other sites, there are distinct hot spots that have suffered
damage in the past. Catches in traps over the first several weeks of the first flight
reveal these high pressure areas, and two or more covers are planned for these locations. Most blocks have been treated with 200 Isomate C+ dispensers per acre, with higher
rates used in some hot spots.
Lower Roza -
This is the largest of the 1998 CAMP sites, involving 1693 acres and 23 growers in
a hilly area northeast of Prosser, WA. Nan· Simone is the site coordinator with
the assistance of Chuck Lochrie. The participating CAMP orchards are spread out
over an area of more than ten square miles, interspersed with blocks of stone fruits, grapes,
hops and field crops. This creates extensive border areas for the CAMP orchards,
which is a concern where mating disruption is used. This situation is typical of
many orchards in the Yakima Valley; mating disruption must be used successfully in these areas
as well as in areas of contiguous orchards if it is to be used more widely in Washington.
Isomate C+ pheromone dispensers are being used at close to 200 per acre across most of the project, with a few areas at 400. Codling moth catches over the first
three weeks have ranged from zeroes (in nearly 50 % of the traps) to over 10 moths/week
in 7% of the traps (one block averaged
over 100/trap after the first three weeks!). From one to three covers are being applied
for the first generation. In a departure from other CAMP sites, the growers
and consultants within this site have taken on the responsibility of checking and
maintaining the nearly 700 codling moth traps here (and soon to be installed leafroller
traps) and reporting the data weekly to Nan· and Chuck for summarizing and distribution. Training sessions were conducted for the growers and their employees on trap use
as well as pheromone installation. If successful, this approach could be a way to
more economically gather some of the extensive pest data that orchard pest management
programs increasingly need.
Rogers Mesa -
This CAMP site is located on the Western Slope in Colorado, to the southeast of Grand
Junction and at almost 6000 feet in elevation. Co-coordinators for the project are
Steve Ela and Larry Traubel. There are close to 600 acres of apples and pears involved, farmed by 17 growers. There is considerable acreage of stone fruits, mostly peaches,
also grown within this area. Codling moth pressure has historically been fairly low
here although populations have been increasing over the past several years.
Biofix was set on May 9th, and moth catch in the two weeks since has revealed a few hot spots. All growers
are using Isomate C+ dispensers, most at 200 per acre with organic growers and higher
pressure areas electing to use the 400 per acre rate.
Ted Alway, Editor
Phone: (509) 664-5540
Fax: (509) 664-5561
Partial Funding provided by: Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission,
U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.
Cooperative Extension, Chelan County
400 Washington St.
Wenatchee, WA 98801
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